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August 2006
Page 1<= /font>
1
August 2017 =
CAROL MYERS-SCOT= TON
Curriculum Vitae=
HOME ADDRESS: 3839= Fossum Lane, Okemos MI 49964. Phone: 517-333-0334; 517-295-3901.
OTHER ADDRESSES<= font style=3D"font-size:16px">: c= /o Department of Linguistics and Germanic, Slavic, Asian and African=
Languages, Michigan= State University, East Lansing, MI 48848-1035.
Also, c/o African S= tudies Center, Michigan State University, Phone: 517-353-1700.
E-mail: myerssc3@msu.edu, preferred email for academic matters. Also cmsbingwa@gmail.com
CURRENT POSITION= :
Adjunct Professor, = Department of Linguistics and Germanic, Slavic, Oriental, and African
Languages, Michigan= State University (MSU). (from 8/2006 to present)
Research Scholar, A= frican Studies Core Faculty, African Studies Center, (MSU).
(from 8/2006 to pre= sent).
Emerita Professor, = Interdepartmental Program in Linguistics, and Department of English,
University of South= Carolina. Carolina Distinguished Professor.
Professor (8/86-5/= 2003).
EDUCATION:
A.B. with honors, 1= 955. Grinnell College, Grinnell, Iowa.
Certificate in Fren= ch & French Phonetics, 1959. The Sorbonne, University of Paris.<= /div>
M.A. (English), Aug= ust 1961. University of Wisconsin, Madison.
Ph.D. (Linguistics)= , January 1967. University of Wisconsin, Madison.
Dissertation Title:= =E2=80=9CSome Semantic and Syntactic Aspects of Swahili Extended Verb Form= s=E2=80=9D
PUBLICATIONS:
BOOKS:
Multiple voices:= An Introduction to Bilingualism. (2006). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publish= ers.
Contact Linguist= ics: Bilingual Encounters and Grammatical Outcomes. (2002). Oxford: Oxf= ord
University Press.
Social Motivatio= ns for Codeswitching: Evidence from Africa. (1993). Oxford: Oxford Univ= ersity
Press (Clarendon Pr= ess). Paperback edition 1995.
Duelling Langua= ges: Grammatical Structure in Codeswitching. (1993). Oxford: Oxford
University Press (= Clarendon Press). Second edition (1997) with new =E2=80=9CAfterword=E2=80= =9D.
Learning Chiche= wa. (1981). Three-volume set of grammatical and cultural materials and<= /nobr>
teacher's manual. = Prepared for U.S. Peace Corps. Republished 1982: Michigan State
University African= Studies Center. (Co-author: Gregory J. Orr).
Choosing a Ling= ua Franca in an African Capital. (1972). (211 pp., Monograph Series in<= /nobr>
Sociolinguistics).= Edmonton: Linguistic Research.
EDITING:
Codes and Conse= quences: Choosing Linguistic Varieties. (ed.) (1998). Also author of
=E2=80=9CIntroduct= ion=E2=80=9D pp. 3-17 and two other chapters (see below). New York: Oxford=
University Press. =
2
Special issue of <= i>International Journal of Bilingualism 3/1. (2001). Title: =E2=80=9CTe= sting a model of
morpheme classific= ation with language contact data=E2=80=9D. (Co-editor of issue with Janice= L.
Jake; co-author of= =E2=80=9CIntroduction=E2=80=9D).
ARTICLES IN PR= ESS:
2017. Splitting an= d recombining abstract lexical levels in contact linguistics. To appear in = edited
volume, Department= of Linguistics, University of Calcutta, India.
ARTICLES ( BOOK CHAPTERS (GENERALLY REFEREED) AND R= EFEREED JOURNALS):
2017. The 4-M mod= el revisited: Codeswitching and morpheme election at the abstract level.
2016 Sage Publishe= rs. ttps://doi.org/10.1177/1367006915626588. In print, International
Journal of Bili= ngualism 21: 340-366. (Janice, L. Jake, co-author).
2015. Cross-langua= ge asymmetries in codeswitching patterns: Implications for a bilingual
language productio= n model. In John Schwieter (ed.) Handbook of language processing.
Cambridge: Cambrid= ge University Press, (Janice L. Jake, co-author). Pp. 416-458.
2014. Nonfinite ve= rbs and negotiating bilingualism in codeswitching: Implications for a langu= age
production model. = Bilingualism, Language and Cognition 17: 511-525.
(Janice. L. Jake, = co-author).
(online Cambridge = University Press 2013. doi: 1017/S1366728913000758.
2013. Paying atten= tion to morpheme types: Making borrowability more precise. In
De F=C3=A9ral, Car= ole (eds.) In and out of Africa, Languages in question, in honour of Rob= ert
Nicolai. Lo= uvain-la-Neuve: Peeters. Pp.31-42.
2013. A mechanism = of lexical borrowing: The abstract level model. In Akimande Akande &
Rotimi Taiwo (eds)= . In Contact linguistics in Africa and beyond. New York: Nova=
Science Publishers= . Pp.7-10.
2012. Asymmetry a= nd uniformity within the clause. In A. Barontini, C. Perira, A. Vincente &a= mp;
K.Ziamari (eds.) <= i>Dynamiques langagieres en Arabophonies (in honour of Dominique=
Caubet). Un= iversidad de Zaragoza: Etudios de Dialectologia Arabe. Pp. 337-345.
2012. Cost makes a= difference: Codeswitching frequencies in bilingual language production. I= n
Proceedings of = Second Conference on Language Contact. London: Westminster
University Press.<= /nobr>
2011. Codeswitch= ing. In Patrick Hogan, ed. The Cambridge encylopedia of the language=
sciences. C= ambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp.159-60.
2010. Patterns an= d predictions for code-switching with Arabic. In Reem Bassiouney (ed) Ar= abic
and the media, = linguistic analyses and applications. Leiden: Brill. Pp. 81-96.<= /div>
2009a. Codeswitchi= ng. In Nikolas Coupland and Adam Jaworski (eds.). The new
sociolinguistic= s reader. New York: St. Martin=E2=80=99s Press/Palgrave/Macmillan. Pp.= 473-489.
2009b. Universal s= tructure in code-switching and bilingual language processing and production= .
In Barbara Bullock= & Almeida Jacqueline Toribio (eds.). Handbook of code-switching.
Cambridge: Cambrid= ge University Press. Pp. 336-357. (with Janice L. Jake).
2009c. Which langu= age? Participation potentials across lexical categories in codeswitching. = In
Ludmila Isurin, Do= nald Winford, and Kees de Bot (eds.).Interdisciplinary approaches to=
code-switching<= /i>. Amsterdam: Benjamins. Pp. 206-240. (with Janice L. Jake).
2008. Language c= ontact: Why outsider system morphemes resist transfer. Journal of Langua= ge
Contact, Th= ema 2. (Electronic journal, Robert Nicolai and Bernard Comrie Eds).
3
2007. The grammat= ical profile of L1 speakers on the stairs of potential language shift. In
Barbara K=C5=91pke= , Monika Schmid, Merel Keijzer, & Susan Dosert, eds.). Language=
attrition: Theo= retical perspectives, Amsterdam: Benjamins. pp. 69-82.
2006a. Natural co= deswitching knocks on the laboratory door. Bilingualism, Language &=
Cognition 9= : 203-212. (Special issue, Albert Costa & David Green, eds.)
2006b. How codeswi= tching as an option empowers bilinguals. In J.A.Neff,-Van Aertselaer,
M.P=C3=BCtz, &= J.A.Fishman (eds.) Along the routes to power, Berlin: Mouton de Gr= uyter.
Pp.73-86.
2005a. A reply to = MacSwan: Keeping the Matrix Language. Bilingualism, Language and
Cognition 8= : 271-276. (with Janice L. Jake, and Steven Gross).
2005b. Supporting = a differential access hypothesis: Codeswitching and other contact data. In<= /nobr>
Judith L. Kroll &a= mp; A De Groot (eds.), Handbook of Bilingualism, Psycholinguistic
Approaches, New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 326-48.
2005C. Uniform Structure: Looking beyond the surface in= explaining codeswitching. Special
issue on codeswitc= hing, Italian Journal of Linguistics/Rivista di Linguistica 17: 15-= 34..
2005d. Embedded la= nguage elements in Acholi/English codeswitching. Language Matters
36: 2-18.
2004a. Precision t= uning of the Matrix Language Frame (MLF) Model of Codeswitching.
Sociolinguistic= a 18: 110-17.
2004b. Predicting = and explaining codeswitching and grammatical convergence across linguistic<= /nobr>
varieties. Jou= rnal of Chinese Sociolinguistics 2: 1-17.
2003a. The out-of-= sight in codeswitching and related contact phenomena. In Lorezna Mondada <= /nobr>
& Simona P.Doe= hler (eds.), Plurilinguisme, Mehlsprachigkeit, & Plurlilingualism.
T=C3=BCbingen &= ; Basel: A. Francke. (with Janice L. Jake). Pp.221- 33.
2003b. Code-switch= ing: Evidence for both flexibility and rigidity in language. In Jean-Marc =
Dewaele, Alex Hous= en & Li Wei (eds.), Blingualism: Beyond Basic Principles. 189-20= 3.
Clevedon, UK: Mult= ilngual Matters.
2003c.What lies be= neath: Split (mixed) languages as contact phenomena. In Yaron Matras & =
Peter Bakker (eds.= ), The mixed language debate: Theoretical and empirical advances,
Berlin: Mouton de = Gruyter. Pp. 73-106.
2002a. Making a mi= nimalist approach to codeswitching work: Adding the Matrix Language.=
Bilingualism, L= anguage and Cognition 5: 69-91. (with Janice L. Jake and Steven Gross).=
2002b. Second gene= ration shifts in sociopragmatic orientation and codeswitching patterns. In=
Aleya Rouchdy (ed.= ), Language contact and language conflict in Arabic, London:<= /div>
Routledge. (with J= anice L. Jake). Pp. 317-30.
2002c. Frequency a= nd intentionality in (unmarked/marked choices in codeswitching: =E2=80=9CTh= is is a
twenty-four hour c= ountry=E2=80=9D. International Journal of Bilingualism 6: 205-19.
2001a. Explaining = aspects of codeswitching and their implications. In Janet Nichol (ed.), = One
mind, two langu= ages: Bilingual language processing , Oxford: Blackwell. (with Janice<= /nobr>
L. Jake). Pp. 84-1= 16.
2001b.Why bilingua= lism matters. American Speech 75. 290-91.
2001c.The matrix l= anguage frame model: Developments and responses. In Rodolfo Jacobson,
(ed.) Codeswitc= hing Worldwide II , Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Pp. 23-58.
2001d. Calculating= speakers: Codeswitching in a rational choice model. Language in Society= 30.
1-28. (with Agnes = Bolonyai).
2001e. Implication= s of abstract grammatical structure: Two targets in creole formation. J= ournal
of Pidgin and C= reole Languages 16. 217-73.
4
2000a. Comparing v= erbs in Swahili/English codeswitching with other data sets. In Kulikoyela
Kahigi,Y.Kihore, &= amp; M. Mous, (eds.), Lugha za Tanzania, Leiden: Universiteit Leiden= .
Pp. 203-214.
2000b. Four types = of morpheme: Evidence from aphasia, code switching, and second-language
acquisition. Li= nguistics 38.1053-1100. (with Janice L. Jake).
2000c. What matter= s: The out of sight in mixed languages. Bilingualism, Language and
Cognition 3= . 119-21.
2000d. Three appro= aches to language contact. Rivista di Linguistica 11. 367-86.=
1999a. Putting it = all together: the Matrix Language and more. In Bernt Brendemoen, E. Lanza = &
E. Ryen (eds.), Language encounters across time and space, Oslo: Novus Press. Pp.13-
28.
1999b. Chichewa an= d =E2=80=98Do=E2=80=99 constructions in codeswitching. In Rosalie Finlayso= n (ed.), African
Mosaic, Pr= etoria: University of South Africa Press. Pp. 406-17. (with Janice L. Jake)= .
1999c. Explaining = the role of norms and rationality in codeswitching. Journal of Pragmatic= s 32.
1259-71.
1998a. Orderly mix= ing and accommodation in South African codeswitching. Journal of
Sociolinguistic= s 2.395-420. (with Rosalie Finlayson and Karen Calteaux).
1998b. A theoretic= al introduction to the markedness model. In C. Myers-Scotton (ed. see
above), Codes a= nd consequences, New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 18-38.
1998c. Marked gram= matical structures: Communicating intentionality in The Great Gatsby and
As I Lay Dying<= /i>. In C.Myers-Scotton (ed. see above), Codes and consequences, = New
York: Oxford Unive= rsity Press. Pp. 62-88.
1998d. Codeswitchi= ng and the nature of lexical entries. Plurilinguismes 14. 219-46. (w= ith Janice
L. Jake).
1998e. A way to du= sty death: The Matrix Language turnover hypothesis. In Lenore Grenoble &= ;
L. Whaley (eds.), = Endangered Languages, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp.
289-316.
1998f. Rational ac= tor models and linguistic choices. In Language, linguistics, and leader= ship,
Joseph O=E2=80=99= Mealy, H. & L. Lyons (eds.), pp. 76-88. Honolulu: University of Hawai= =E2=80=99i and
East-West Center P= ress.
1998g. Compromise = structural strategies in codeswitching. In Guus Extra & L. Verhoeven (e= ds.),
Bilingualism an= d migration, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Pp. 211-228.
1997a. Codeswitchi= ng and compromise strategies: Implications for lexical structure.
International J= ournal of Bilingualism 1: 25-39. (with Janice L. Jake).
1997b. The structu= re of Tsotsitaal and Iscamtho: Code switching and in-group identity in Sout= h
African townships.= . Linguistics 35. 317-42. (with Sarah Slabbert).
1997c. Rational ac= tor models and social discourse analysis. In Emilia R.Pedro (ed.), Disco= urse
Analysis, Proce= edings of the First International Conference on Social Discourse=
Analysis, L= isbon: Edicoes Colibri/Associacao Portuguesa de Linguistica. Pp.177-99. =
1997d. Relating in= terlanguage to codeswitching: The Composite Matrix Language. Proceeding= s,
the 1996 Boston= University Conference on Language Development, Brookline, MA: <= /div>
Cascadilla Press. = (with Janice L. Jake). Pp. 319-30.
1997e. On safari w= ith sociolinguistics. In G. Richard Tucker & C.B. Paulston (eds.), = The Early
Days of Socioli= nguistics, Arlington, TX: Summer Institute of Linguistics. Pp.189-99.<= /nobr>
1997f. Structural = uniformities vs. community difference in codeswitching. In Rodolfo Jacobso= n
(ed.), Codeswit= ching Worldwide, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Pp. 91-108.
5
1997g. =E2=80=98Ma= trix Language choice=E2=80=99 and =E2=80=98Morpheme sorting=E2=80=99 as pos= sible structural strategies in
pidgin/creole form= ation. In Arthur Spears & D. Winford (eds.), Pidgins and<= /div>
Creoles: Struct= ure and status, Amsterdam: Benjamins. Pp. 151-74.
1997h. Codeswitchi= ng. In Florian Coulmas (ed.), Handbook of Sociolinguistics, Oxford= :
Blackwell. Pp. 217= -37.
1996a. Arabic and = constraints on codeswitching. In Mushira Eid & Dilworth Parkinson (ed= s),
Perspectives on= Arabic linguistics IX, Amsterdam: Benjamins (with Maha Okasha and
Janice L. Jake). P= p.9-43.
1996b. Afterword. = (Comments on papers given at Symposium on Code-Mixing). World=
Englishes 1= 5.395-404.
1995a. Matching l= emmas in a bilingual language competence and production model: evidence
from intrasententi= al code switching. Linguistics 33: 981-1024. (with Janice L. Jake).<= /nobr>
Reprinted in Li We= i (ed), The bilingualism reader, London: Routledge. Pp. 281-320.
1995b. A lexically= -based production model of codeswitching. In Lesley Milroy & Pieter
Muysken (eds.), One speaker, two languages: Cross-disciplinary perspectives on code-
switching, = Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 233-56.
1995c. Language pr= ocessing and the mental lexicon in bilinguals. In Rene Dirven & J. Vanp= arys
(eds.), New app= roaches to the lexicon, Frankfurt: P. Lang. Pp.73-100.
1995d. What do spe= akers want? Codeswitching as evidence of intentionality in linguistic
choices. In Pamela= Silberman and J. Loftin (eds.), Salsa 2, Papers from Symposium about
Language and So= ciety at Austin, Austin: Univ of Texas Dept of Linguistics. Pp. 1-17.
1993a. Common and= uncommon ground: Social and structural factors in codeswitching.
Language in Soc= iety 22:475-503.
1993b. English loa= ns in Shona: Consequences for linguistic systems. International Journal = of the
Sociology of La= nguage 100/01:125-48. (with Janice Bernsten).
1993c. Elite closu= re as a powerful language strategy: the African case. International Jour= nal of
the Sociology o= f Language 103:149-63.
1993d. Building th= e frame in codeswitching: evidence from Africa. In Salikoko Mufwene &
L.Moshi (eds.), Topics in African Linguistics, Amsterdam: Benjamins. Pp.253-78.=
1992a. Constructin= g the frame in intrasentential codeswitching. Multilingua 11.101-27.=
1992b. Codeswitchi= ng in Africa: a model of the social functions of code selection. Robert K.<= /nobr>
Herbert (ed.), = Sociolinguistics in Africa, Johannesburg: University of the Witwatersra= nd
Press. Pp.165-80.<= /nobr>
1992c. Codeswitchi= ng as a mechanism of deep borrowing, language shift, and language death. In=
Matthias Brenzinge= r (ed.), Language Death in East Africa, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.<= /nobr>
Pp.31-58.
1992d. Codeswitchi= ng as socially-motivated performance meets structurally-motivated
constraints. In Ma= rtin P=C3=BCtz (ed.), Thirty years of linguistic evolution, Amsterda= m:
Benjamins. Pp. 417= -28.
1992e. Comparing c= odeswitching and borrowing. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural
Development 13. 19-39.
1992f. Sociolingui= stics: An overview. South African Journal of African Languages 12
(supplement 1).1-1= 0.
1992g. Simplificat= ion: Not the best explanation for two language changes in Nairobi Swahili. = In
Jan Blommaert (ed.= ), Swahili Studies, Essays in Honour of Marcel Van Spaandonck, ,
Ghent: Academia Pr= ess. Pp.45-56.
6
1990a. Codeswitchi= ng and borrowing: interpersonal and macrolevel meaning. In Rodolfo
Jacobson (ed.), Codeswitching as a Worldwide Phenomenon, New York: Peter Lang.<= /div>
Pp.85-110.<= /div>
1990b. Accounting = for structure in Swahili/English codeswitching. Working Papers in Kiswah= ili
No. 9. Ghen= t: State University Ghent (Belgium) Seminar for Swahili. 22 pp.
1990c. Elite closu= re as boundary maintenance: the evidence from Africa. In Brian Weinstein
(ed.), Language= Policy and Political Development, pp. 25-41. Norwood NJ: Ablex.
1990d. A frame-bas= ed model of codeswitching. In Michael Ziolkowsi et al.(eds.),
Papers from the= 25th Regional Meeting, Chicago Linguistic Society, Chicago: Chicago
Linguistic Society= , (with Shoji Azuma). Pp. 307-321.
1989. Code-switch= ing with English: switching types, communities types. World Englishes
8.333-46.
1988a. Self-enhanc= ing codeswitching as interactional power. Language & Communication<= /i>
8.199-211.<= /div>
1988b. Differentia= ting borrowing and codeswitching. In K. Ferrara et al (eds.), Linguistic= change
and contact= : N-WAV XVI, Austin TX: Univ. of Texas Dept. Linguistics. Pp.318-25.=
1988c. Codeswitchi= ng as indexical of social negotiation. In Monica Heller (ed.), Codeswitc= hing:
Anthropological= and sociolinguistic perspectives, , pp.151-86. The Hague: Mouton de
Gruyter. Reprinte= d 2000. In Li Wei (ed.), The bilingualism reader, London: Routledge.=
Pp.137-65.<= /div>
1988d. Patterns o= f bilingualism in East Africa. In Christina Bratt Paulston (ed.) Interna= tional
handbook of bil= ingualism and bilingual education, Westport CT: Greenwood Press.
Pp. 203-24.=
1988e. Codeswitchi= ng and types of multilingual communities. In Peter Lowenberg (ed.),<= /div>
Georgetown Univ= ersity Round Table on languages and linguistics 1987, Washington:
Georgetown Univers= ity Press. Pp. 61-82.
1988f. Natural con= versations as a model for textbook dialogue. Applied Linguistics 9:3= 72-84.
(with Janice Berns= ten).
1986. Diglossia an= d codeswitching. In Joshua A. Fishman et al. (eds.), The Fergusonian Imp= act,
Vol.2, Berlin: Mou= ton de Gruyter. Pp. 403-15.
1985. What the hec= k, sir? Style shifting and lexical colouring as features of powerful langua= ge.
In Richard L. Stre= et Jr. and J.N. Cappella (eds.), Sequence and Pattern in Communicative
Behavior, = London: Edward Arnold. Pp. 103-19.
1984a. The multipl= e meanings of Shi.fu in Chinese: a semantic change in progress.
Anthropological= Linguistics 26: 326-44. (with Zhu Wanjin).
1984b. Conversatio= nal expression of power by television interviewers. Journal of Social
Psychology = 123:261-71. (with Heidi Owsley)
.
1983a. Comment: ma= rkedness and code choice. International Journal of the Sociology of<= /nobr>
Language 39= .119-28.
1983b. The negotia= tion of identities in conversation: a theory of markedness and code choice.=
International J= ournal of the Sociology of Language 44:115-136.
.
1983c. Tongzhi = in Chinese: conversational consequences of language change. In Langu= age in
Society 12:= 477-94. (with Zhu Wanjin). Translated into Chinese for Readings in<= /nobr>
Sociolinguistic= s).
1982a. Learning li= ngua francas and socio-economic integration: evidence from Africa. In Rober= t
L. Cooper (ed.), <= i>Language spread, Bloomington, Ind: Indiana University Press. <= /div>
Pp. 63-94. =
7
1982b. An urban-ru= ral comparison of language use among the Luyia in Kenya. International
Journal of the = Sociology of Language 34:121-36.
1982c. The linguis= tic situation and language policy in Eastern Africa. In Robert B. Kaplan (e= d.),
Annual Review o= f Applied Linguistics, Rowley, Mass: Newbury House. Pp. 8-20.
1982d. What about = powerful questions? In Schneider, Robinson et al. (eds.), Papers from
parasession on = non-declaratives, Chicago IL:Chicago Linguistic Society,
(with H. Owsley). = Pp. 219-27
.
1982e. The possibi= lity of codeswitching: motivation for maintaining multilingualism.
Anthropological= Linguistics 24:432-44.
1981. Extending i= nalienable possession: the argument for an extensive case in Swahili. Jo= urnal
of African Lang= uages and Linguistics 3:159-74.
1980. Explaining = linguistic choices as identity negotiations. In Howard Giles et al. (eds.),=
Language, Socia= l Psychological Perspectives, Oxford: Pergamon Press. Pp. 359-66.
1979a. National a= nd personal ambition in language choice. In Edgar Polome et al. (eds.), = Studies
in Honor of A.A= . Hill (Vol. IV), The Hague: Mouton.
1979b. The context= is the message: syntactic and semantic deletion in Nairobi and Kampala
varieties of Swahi= li. In Ian Hancock (ed.), Readings in Creole Studies, Gent: Story-<= /nobr>
Scientia. Pp.111-2= 8.
1979c. Codeswitchi= ng as a =E2=80=98safe choice=E2=80=99 in choosing a lingua franca. In Will= iam McCormack &
S. Wurm (eds.), Language and Society, pp. 71-88. The Hague: Mouton.
1978. Language in = East Africa: Linguistic patterns and political ideologies. In Joshua A.
Fishman (ed.), = Advances in the study of societal multilingualism, The Hague: Mouton.
Pp.719-60.<= /div>
1977a. Linguistic = performance as a socioeconomic indicator. Journal of Social Psychology<= /i>
102:35-45.<= /div>
1977b. Review arti= cle: Language in Kenya. Language 53:174-89.
1977c. Linguistic = performances as subjective measure: some findings and implications. Stu= dies
in African Ling= uistics 8, supplement. 199-210.
.
1977d. Bilingual s= trategies: the social function of codeswitching. International Journal = of the
Sociology of La= nguage 13:5-20. Also in Linguistics 193. (with William Ury). Rep= rinted
in Zhu, Wanjin (ed= .) 1985. She-hue u-ian-xue i uen ji (Edited Translations on
Sociolinguistics),= pp.199-217. Peking University Press. 199-217. Also reprinted in Raith,
Joachim et al. (ed= s.) 1986. Grundlagen der Mehrsprachigkeitsforschung (Basic Research<= /nobr>
in Multilingual= ism), pp. 163-82. Stuttgart: Franc Steiner.
1976a. The role of= norms and other factors in language choice in work situations in three Afr= ican
cities (Lagos, Kam= pala, Nairobi). In R. Kjolseth & A. Verdoodt (eds.),Language = and
Society, L= ouvain: Editions Peeters. Pp. 201-32.
1976b. Strategies = of Neutrality: Language choice in uncertain situations. Language 52:= 919-41.
1975a. Multilingua= lism in Lagos--what it means to the social scientist. Ohio State Working=
Papers in Lingu= istics 19.78-90.
1975b. Loan words = and the borrowing process in two Ateso dialects. Journal of the Language=
Association of = Eastern Africa 3:7-48.
1973. Neighbors a= nd lexical borrowings: a study of two Ateso dialects. Language 49:8= 71-89.
(with John Okeju).=
1972. Loan word i= ntegration in Ateso. Anthropological Linguistics 14:358-82. <= /div>
1971. Towards a l= inguistic theory of choosing a lingua franca. Studies in African Lingui= stics 1,
supplement = 2.109-29.
8
1969. The percept= ion of Swahili of two up-country groups of speakers. Swahili 39:101-= 11.
1967. Semantic an= d syntactic subcategorization in Swahili causative verb shapes. Journal = of
African Languag= es 6:249-67.
1965. Some Swahil= i political words. Journal of Modern African Studies 3:527-42.
BOOK REVIEWS (ONLY VERY RECENT ONES LISTED)
2013. Review of Dynamics of contact-induced language change by Claudine Chamoreau and<= /nobr>
Isabelle Leglise. = Mouton de Gruyter. In. Language Policy.
2012. Review of Paradigm shift in language planning and policy: Game-theoretic solutions <= /i>by
Ettien Koffi. Mout= on de Gruyter. In Language Policy..
2012. Review of Language contact by Yaron Matras. Mouton de Gruyter. In Journal of = English
Linguistics= .
2012. Review of Handbook of language contact, Raymond Hickey (ed.), Cambridge Universi= ty
Press. In Journ= al of Sociolinguistics.
2010. Review of Style and social identities, alternative approaches to linguistic heteroge= neity.
Peter Auer (ed.), = Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Review in Journal of English Linguistics.=
2008. Revie= w of The bilingual child (2007). By Virginia Yip and Stephen Matthew= s.
Cambridge: CUP. Re= view in Journal of Linguistics
2008. Review of The sociolinguistics of identity (2006) by Tope Omoniyi and Goodith Wh= ite
(eds.). New York: = Continuum. Review in Studies in Second Language Acquisition 30: 3.
2007. Reply to re= view of Contact Linguistics (2002) by Davies & Bentahila. La= nguage in
Society 36,= 3: 459-462.
2006. Review of Language contact and grammatical change by Bernd Heine and Tania
Kuteva. 2005. Camb= ridge University Press. In Journal of English Linguistics 34: 1-4.<= /nobr>
MAJOR ACADEMIC = GRANTS/HONORS (POST-PHD):
6/2004-11/2005. N= ational Science Foundation (Linguistics Division) =E2=80=9CSteps in Grammat= ical
Turnover/Shift=E2= =80=9D. Principal Investigator. Field work in South Africa and data analys= is.
8/05. Invited inst= ructor, Linguistics Institute, Trondheim, Norway.
5/96- 5/2003. Car= olina Distinguished Professor (of Linguistics), University of South Carolin= a..
6-7/03. Invited in= structor, Summer LSA Linguistics Institute, MSU, East Lansing, MI.
6-7/2000. Universi= ty of South Carolina College of Liberal Arts, CLASS grant.
1/99. Invited ins= tructor, Consortium of Dutch Universities =E2=80=9CWinter School=E2=80=9D, = Amsterdam.
7/98. Invited ins= tructor, Australian Linguistics Institute, University of Queensland, Brisba= ne.
5/97-12/97. Unive= rsity of South Carolina All-University Venture Fund Grant.
4/94-4/97. Nation= al Science Foundation (Linguistics Division). =E2=80=9CCongruency in codesw= itching
and the nature of = lexical entries.=E2=80=9D Field work and analysis. (Principal Investigator = with
Janice L. Jake). <= /nobr>
6/95. Distinguish= ed Alumni Award, Grinnell College, Grinnell, Iowa.
5/95. Human Scien= ces Research Council Research Award, Republic of South Africa. (Support
for month of resea= rch in South Africa).
1993-94. Russell R= esearch Award (College of Humanities and Social Sciences), University of
South Carolina. <= /nobr>
1993-94. Outstandi= ng Graduate Teacher Award, Graduate English/Linguistics Club, University
of South Carolina.=
1992-93. Universit= y of South Carolina Research and Productive Scholarship Grant.
9
1988. Social Scie= nce Research Council Grant. Nine weeks sociolinguistic fieldwork, Kenya an= d
Zimbabwe. <= /div>
1988-89. Universi= ty of South Carolina Research and Productive Scholarship Grant.
6-7/86. Director,= Intensive Swahili Language Pedagogy Institute, Michigan State University.<= /nobr>
Students: ten Swah= ili instructors from U.S. universities and colleges. Topic: current<= /div>
second language ac= quisition theory and applications to Swahili teaching. (Funded by U.S.
Department of Educ= ation).
1984. MSU Researc= h Completion Grant. Analysis of data on urban dialects of Swahili and
Shona: Patterns of= borrowing universals in pidginization processes.
1983. Fulbright R= esearch Grant.. Kenya and Zimbabwe to study urban dialects and
simplification as= an urban phenomenon (in reference to hypotheses concerning language=
universals). Seve= n months.
1980. Project di= rector, ACTION contract #79-043, 1033 to prepare Chiche=E2=8C=8Aa grammar t= eaching
materials for Pea= ce Corps in Mala=E2=8C=8Ai.
1997. Joint Comm= ittee on African Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies and t= he
Social Science Re= search Council. 10 weeks sociolinguistic research in Kenya.
1970-71. American= Association of University Women post-doctoral fellowship.
1968-70. East Afr= ican Language Survey (Ford Foundation). Sociolinguistic research in Kampala=
and field study o= f borrowing in Ateso.
TEACHING AND O= THER ACADEMIC EXPERIENCE (POST-PHD):=
Fall. 2016. Two u= ndergraduate class lectures on codeswitching. Grinnell College, Grinnell, I= owa.
Fall 2009. Underg= raduate Sociolinguistics (substitute instructor), Michigan State University= .
Fall 2005. Gradu= ate Seminar in Bilingualism. University of South Carolina (USC).
August 2005. Week= -long =E2=80=9CLinguistics summer school=E2=80=9D Trondheim, Norway.=
Spring 2004. Adv= anced undergraduate class =E2=80=9CLanguage in Society=E2=80=9D. USC.
June-July 2003. = LSA Summer Linguistics Institute, Michigan State University. Invited to tea= ch
three-week course= =E2=80=9Ccontact linguistics=E2=80=9D.
August 1986-May 2= 003. Professor of Linguistics and English, appointed in Department of
English, Universi= ty of South Carolina. (Teaching graduate courses in sociolinguistics,
language contact,= and discourse, and undergraduate courses in linguistics).
Director, USC Int= erdepartmental Linguistics Program, 8/86-8/90; 7/96-6/98.
September--Novemb= er 1992. Visiting Fellow, Max-Planck Institut f=C3=BCr Psycholinguistik,
Nijmegen, The Net= herlands. (Consulting with the language production group).
January 1989--May= 1989. Visiting Professor, Department of Linguistics, University of Texas,=
Austin, Texas. (T= eaching graduate courses in sociolinguistics).
September 1976--J= uly 1986. Professor, Department of Linguistics and Germanic, Slavic,
Oriental, and Afr= ican Languages, Michigan State University. (Appointed Professor 1980.
Teaching graduate= and undergraduate courses in sociolinguistics and African linguistics).
September 1982--J= anuary 1983. Visiting Professor, Department of Foreign Languages, Peking
University, Beiji= ng, the People's Republic of China. Taught stylistics and
sociolinguistics.=
September 1974--J= une 1976. Associate Professor, Department of Anthropology, Yale
University. (Appo= inted Associate Professor 1975. Teaching graduate and undergraduate<= /div>
courses in sociol= inguistics).
10
October 1973--Aug= ust 1974. Analysis and writing up of data on patterns of language use in
Lagos, Nigeria. A= merican Philosophical Society Grant. On-going research on Swahili
syntax.
July 1972--Octobe= r 1973. Lecturer, Department of Linguistics and African Languages.<= /div>
University of Nai= robi, Kenya. (Teaching undergraduate general linguistics,
sociolinguistics,= Swahili structure).
Academic year 197= 1-72. Research Fellow, University of Lagos, Nigeria. Data gathering on
language use patt= erns in Lagos. Study of Pidgin English in Lagos.
Academic year 197= 0-71. Research Fellow, American Association of University Women.
Analyzing and wri= ting up data on language use patterns in Kampala, Uganda. On-going
research on Swahi= li syntax.
July 1968--July 1= 970. Lecturer and Head, Subject of Linguistics and African Languages,
Makerere Universi= ty, Uganda. Establishing and directing program and teaching
undergraduate cou= rses in general linguistics.
September 1966--F= ebruary 1968. Assistant Professor, African Studies program, Howard<= /div>
University, Washi= ngton, D.C. (Teaching graduate and undergraduate courses in Swahili,=
African linguisti= cs and general linguistics).
RECENT MAJOR P= RESENTATIONS:
Invited speaker, = =E2=80=9CMixing it up with codeswitching: Using two languages in the same
conversation.=E2= =80=9D All-college lecture, Grinnell College, Grinnell, Iowa.
Co-organizer, Col= loquium, 21st International Symposium= on Sociolinguistics. University of
Murcia, Murcia, S= pain 6/16.
Invited speaker, = =E2=80=9CNoun phrases, determiners, EL islands and related elements.=E2=80= =9D CNRS (Centre
National de Resea= rch Scientifique), Paris, France. 2/12.
Keynote speaker, = =E2=80=9CWhen the price is right (or not): Codeswitching as evidence of cos= ts in
language producti= on.=E2=80=9D International Conference on Language Contact, Westminster
University, Londo= n, 7/11.
Lectures, Free Un= iversity of Berlin, University of Flensburg, Germany 5/07.
Main speaker, Sec= ond International Conference on Attrition, Amsterdam, 8/05.
Public lecture, R= hodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa, 5/05.
Keynote Speaker, = 30th biennial LAUD conference. Landa= u, Germany. 4/04.
Invited speaker i= n lecture series on Bilingualism. University of Wales, Bangor. 3/04.
Main Speaker, 2nd International Conference on Chinese = Sociolinguistics. Macau Technical
College, Macau, P= eople=E2=80=99s Republic of China. 11/03.
Main speaker, Wor= kshop on Codeswitching, Deutsche Gesellschaft f=C3=BCr Sprachwissenschft. <= /nobr>
University of Man= nheim, Germany. 2/02.
Main speaker, Int= ernational Conference on Migration and Multilingualism, University of
Bayreuth, Germany= . 11/2001.
Keynote speaker, = International Colloquium in Codeswitching and Dialect Accommodation,
University of Ham= burg, Germany. 12/00
Plenary speaker, = Second International Symposium on Bilingualism. Univ of Newcastle,<= /div>
Newcastle, Englan= d. 4/99.
Main speaker, Int= ernational Symposium on Language Policy, Bar-Ilan University, Tel-Aviv,
Israel. 11/99.
Plenary Speaker, = Australian Linguistic Society annual meeting. Brisbane 7/98.
11
CONFERENCE PRE= SENTATIONS (TO 2000 ONLY):
=E2=80=9CTrump tr= uth: Elite closure upended.=E2=80=9D Annual conference of Southeastern Conf= erence on
Linguistics. Char= leston, SC. 3/9/2017. (Janice. L. Jake co-author).
=E2=80=9CReminder= s of another identity: Social messages in codeswitching. Presented at 21st Symposium
on Sociolinguisti= cs, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain. 6/2016.
=E2=80=9CExplaini= ng the dominance of aspect in creole development.=E2=80=9D Paper presented = at annual
conference of the= Society for Pidgin and Creole linguistics (held with LSA annual
meeting), Minneap= olis. MN, 1/014. (Janice L. Jake co-author).
=E2=80=9CHow much= does it cost? Implications from codeswitching for language production.=E2= =80=9D
Paper presented a= t 8th International Symposium on Bili= ngualism, Oslo, Norway, 6/011.
(Janice L. Jake, = co-author).
=E2=80=9CLanguage= contact: Abstract asymmetries and uniformity in codeswitching and other co= ntact
phenomena.=E2=80= =9D Paper presented, 7th Internationa= l Symposium on Bilingualism, 6/010.
Utrecht, The Neth= erlands. (Janice L. Jake, co-author).
=E2=80=9CAsymmetr= y and uniformity: Accounting for structure in creoles=E2=80=9D. Paper prese= nted, annual
meeting, Society = for Pidgin and Creole Linguistics, 01/08/09. Baltimore. (with Janice L.
Jake).
=E2=80=9CPredicti= ng distributions in creoles by morpheme type.=E2=80=9D Paper presented, ann= ual meeting,
Society for Pidgi= n and Creole Linguistics, 01/10/09. San Francisco. (Janice L. Jake co-
author).
=E2=80=9CWhat mak= es attractiveness matter?=E2=80=9D Paper presented at annual meeting, Michi= gan Linguistic
Society, Wayne St= ate University, Detroit, 10/08.
=E2=80=9CAttracti= veness, within limits.=E2=80=9D Paper presented at Sociolinguistics Sympos= ium #17,
Amsterdam, The Ne= therlands, April 3-5, 2008. (with Janice L. Jake).
=E2=80=9CP= redicting which language supplies what in bilingual speech.=E2=80=9D Invite= d workshop on
codeswitching, Oh= io State University. 12/07. (with Janice L. Jake).
=E2=80=9CB= eyond classic codeswitching: colloquium.=E2=80=9D 6th International Symposium on Bilingualism.
Hamburg, Germany.= 5-6/07. Co-organizer with Janice L. Jake.
=E2=80=9CP= atterns and prospects for codeswitching with Arabic.=E2=80=9D Conference on= Arabic and the Media.
University of Uta= h, 3/07.
=E2=80=9CWhy outs= ider system morphemes are hard to borrow.=E2=80=9D Invited conference on la= nguage contact,
Max Planck Instit= ute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany. 5/07.
=E2=80=9CAbrupt o= r gradual? Grammatical aspects of potential language shift in Xhosa-Englis= h
bilinguals.=E2=80= =9D Conference on Bantu languages, School of Oriental and African Language= s,
University of Lon= don, 4/06. (with Janice L. Jake).
=E2=80=9CFanakalo= : Origins and relation to creoles.=E2=80=9D Annual conference Pidgin and C= reole society.
Albuquerque, 1/06= . (with Ralph Adendorf).
=E2=80=9CA= step model of grammatical aspects of language shift.=E2=80=9D 5th International Symposium on
Bilingualism, Bar= celona, Spain. 4/05.
=E2=80=9CThe gram= matical abruptness of language shift: Why creolists should care.=E2=80=9D S= ociety for Pidgin
and Creole Lingui= stics, annual conference, Oakland CA 1/05.
=E2=80=9CWhy seco= nd language researchers should pay attention to language contact data.=E2= =80=9D SLRF
(Second Language = Research Forum). Penn State University, University Park PA. 10/04. =
=E2=80=9CIntersec= tions between the Markedness Model and Relevance Theory.=E2=80=9D 4th International
Symposium on Bili= ngualism=E2=80=9D. Arizona State University, Tempe AZ 5/03.
=E2=80=9CNonfinit= e verbs in Acholi/English codeswitching.=E2=80=9D 4th International Symposium on
12
Bilingualism. Tem= pe AZ. 5/03. (with Janice L. Jake).
=E2=80=9CCreole f= ormation and the divide in morpheme types.=E2=80=9D Society for Pidgin and = Creole Linguistics,
annual meeting. A= tlanta GA. 1/03.
=E2=80=9CCodeswit= ching in African urban communities.=E2=80=9D Congress of International Appl= ied Linguistics
Association. Sing= apore 12/02.
=E2=80=9CSources = of inflection: testing the creole system morpheme hypothesis.=E2=80=9D Soci= ety for Pidgin and
Creole Linguistic= s, annual conference. San Francisco CA. 1/02. (with Janice L. Jake).=
=E2=80=9CConstrai= nts in bilingual speech: You can=E2=80=99t just say what you want to say.= =E2=80=9D NWAV annual
conference. Ralei= gh NC 10/01. (with Janice L. Jake).
=E2=80=9CThe insi= de story on mixed languages.=E2=80=9D Invited presentation, Mixed Language = Workshop,
Manchester Univer= sity, England. 12/00.
=E2=80=9CMinimali= sm meets Matrix Language: Variation in codeswitching=E2=80=9D. NWAV annual = conference.
East Lansing MI 1= 0/00. (with Janice L. Jake).
=E2=80=9CNegotiat= ing an identity through codeswitching: =E2=80=98This is a 24-hour country= =E2=80=99.=E2=80=9D International
Pragmatics Associ= ation, annual meeting. Budapest. 7/00.
=E2=80=9COnly ear= ly system morphemes need apply.=E2=80=9D Society for Pidgin and Creole Ling= uistics, annual
meeting. Chicago = 1/00. (with Janice L. Jake).
=E2=80=9CCodeswit= ching within a minimalist framework.=E2=80=9D Linguistic Society of America= , annual
meeting. Chicago = 1/00. (with Janice L. Jake).
MAJOR ACADEMIC= INTERESTS:
(1) All aspects o= f bilingualism, especially in Africa and/or involving language contact
phenomena (e.g. c= odeswitching).
(2) Types of morp= hemes and constraints on their distribution.
(3) Models of gra= mmar and language production (as related to studies of the structural
constraints on la= nguage contact phenomena (especially codeswitching).
(4) General socio= linguistics. Sociolinguistic theory; interpersonal negotiations and linguis= tic
choices; national= language policies; pidgins and creoles; language spread.
(5) Discourse ana= lysis & stylistics (literary texts and natural conversation). Socio-pra= gmatics.
(6) Study of Afri= can languages, particularly with regard to (a) multilingualism and related = issues,
(b) language poli= cies, Specialization: Swahili and the Bantu group of languages in general.<= /nobr>
FIELDWORK IN L= INGUISTICS:
Africa: Dar es Sa= laam, Tanzania, 10 months, 1964-65; Kampala, Uganda (with some rural=
fieldwork), 24 mo= nths, 1968-70; Lagos, Nigeria, 9 months, 1971-72; Nairobi, Kenya, 13 months= ,
1972-73; rural We= stern Kenya and Nairobi, 2 1/2 months, 1977; Malawi, 3 months, 1980;=
Kenya, 2 weeks, 1= 980; Nairobi, Kenya, 4 months, 1983; Dar es Salaam, 1 week, 1983; Harare,
Zimbabwe, 6 weeks= , 1983; rural Western Kenya and Nairobi, 4 weeks, summer 1988; rural=
Zimbabwe and Hara= re, Zimbabwe, 5 weeks, summer 1988; urban South Africa, 4 weeks, 1995;
Kampala, Uganda, = 5 weeks, summer 1995; urban South Africa, 7 weeks 2004, 2 weeks, 2005.
Nairobi, Kenya, 2= weeks, summer 2012.
Other: Sociolingu= istics field work. Basel, Switzerland. Summer 1984.
OTHER INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE:
Taught sociolingu= istics and stylistics at Peking University (Beijing, China) fall semester 1= 981.
www.000webhost.com
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